Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Let's Pay Attention to Evolution to Find Out Who We Are

I have been looking over some animal research on evolution.  There are literally thousands of studies but two stood out for me.  The first, done in the early twentieth century, and the second very recently.

In Russia, mid 20th century they took a group of wolves who generally remain wolves throughout their lives and do not change easily into pussy cats, and selected out those who were most gentle when approached.  They were raised with care and gentleness as you would a dog. Guess what happened in one lifetime?  They became dogs.  They had a different coat, many different colors and shades, their hormones and bone structure was different, their behavior tame and playful, and above all,  they looked like dogs with the same hair and faces.  They had changed biologically in every way.

Second research:  they took a group of fish and lowered the water level for them until they needed to walk rather than swim.  They became almost bipeds.  Their feet and bone structure changed and little by little they could live on land. They already had some capacity for breathing, however.  But in both cases we can see evolution at work, and at work rapidly.

Now let us look at us.  Early life in the womb begins to inform us about the world we live in, and more importantly, the world we can expect to live in.  And what do we do?  We begin to adapt; we change in every way.  If the mother is highly anxious and fearful, the boy can expect fear in his life and adapt to block  too much input.  He could be hyper to deal with that fear and danger and be wary and cautious at all times.  Other factors during that time will shape who he is.  If the mother who is carrying is highly depressed, the child may expect a sullen world, absent of joy and enthusiasm, who needs much stimulation to get going and seems motivation-less.  His physiology is low and slow, low body temp, blood pressure and heart rate.  He has been transformed into a biologic parasympath. (The parasympathetic nervous system will change its function and come to dominate). He will not be a self-starter; not because of heredity but because of what very early experience has done to change him.  It is the same principle with the fish and the wolves. Early experience does change us in many ways.  We become different.

Evolution should tell us that the same early experience that made wolves into dogs can make us into different kinds of human beings.  It governs our future behavior, our ideas and our possible illnesses.  Those rare humans reared in the jungle with no human contact do not learn to speak and react as we do.  We are pliable early on, so when the mother is a certain way while carrying, the child changes to adapt to this key early environment.  And that adaptation remains in force for life.  We are learning how to get along, how to live with others, whether to be afraid or suspicious, whether to approach or retreat.  We have learned what kind of world we can expect and be ready for it.  Only that may not be the way the world really is; only a different version of it. And so one maladapts, living out his past world in the present; also called “neurosis”. He misinterprets because his view of the world is very skewed.  And his physiology becomes neurotic too, to accommodate his early warped life.  Allergies, high blood pressure, migraines are some of the results we see; and we change when we return to those early months.  We don’t necessarily have an awareness of these depths but they are dredged up as we plunge deeply into the brain and its depths; a process known as resonance. Where each brain level is connected to a higher level, each level sharing information in its own "patois" to levels above.  That is how feelings become transformed into ideas.  Feelings await the development of the neo-cortex before provoking ideas, just as happened in ancient evolutionary times. Once ideas are in place that can be suffused and altered by feelings.  We don’t speak English, we speak feelings that long ago predated English.  We give those feelings a name.

My point in all this is that pain and healing are one.  We cannot have healing without the pain laid down very early in the development of consciousness. Those who have never had that experience, which is most of us, will never know who lies deep inside.  That means that those doing psychotherapy will never plumb the depths necessary for healing. If we want to be whole we must bring all levels of brain function, all levels of consciousness together.  I am not sure that we can make dogs into wolves again, but happily, we can go back and be what we were meant to be if we visit ancient times and ancient levels of consciousness.  Despite Mindfulness and other such nonsense, the neo-cortex alone can never get us there.  It wasn’t designed to reach deep into our biology.  Mental tricks are just that, tricks to fool our system. They do not endure  and make no permanent changes.  They are games perpetrated in lieu of proper scientific therapy.  It is not the memory of pain I am discussing, but the experience of it. That experience is deep inside us.  It will not come to us, except for the use of LSD; we need to meet it; to travel downward and feel what lies there waiting to get out and be liberated.  And the minute we experience it we at the same time liberate it.  What a relief!



  1. "And the minute we experience it we at the same time liberate it" ...Your words ...It would be interesting to read if you have any thoughts about the self-healing ability of the psyche .. Since it is not pain felt itself.. nore the therapist.. [it seems that pain and many times a therapist can block such liberating process] How do you think about it Dr Yanov?

    1. Hi Rose.

      I am not dr. Janov, but in my opinion and expressing this opinion as I had felt it during Primal Therapy, I will tell you this.
      The self-healing ability of the soul is exactly what Primal Therapy does.
      Crying is a normal and spontaneous human reaction to pain and suffering. It is a very old worldwide-known language. It alerts our "tribe" about our pain and at the same time, crying gets us into what we feel.
      During those ancient years crying wasn't a shame. Men cried, as well as women, as well as Everyone.

      When (for a reason and time I cannot possibly know) we deprived ourselves of the healing powers of crying, catastrophic energy began to accumulate and embrace our souls. The rest is history.

      I realize that crying may sometimes not be enough. Some 1st line traumas cause strange physical reactions. But the body - the soul if you like - knows its way. So, even if someone doesn't do Primal Therapy, crying is the 2nd best solution. Only when crying comes natyrally, then it clears the eyes of the soul. No matter how you describe it, the outcome is the same.

      Whatever personal system you decide to follow, you will see that feelings are the quintessence and rulers of every action. And even if you decide to have yourself as your mentor - cool enough I think - you will attract people and events that one day will show your inner unresolved feelings. And if you just let (normally and with trust to yourself) those feelings get out of you, then your soul would heal itself...

      Be well.

      - Yannis -

      PS: I don't know if you are Hellene, but the word "psyche" means "soul" in english.

    2. I could not put this any better. Thanks, Yannis for the help. art

  2. Is gratitude a feeling ....I just feel so grateful every time I read your reflections on the human condition.Particularly this one "despite Mindfulness "! Thank you.

    1. Katherinanina: Thanks and I feel grateful when I get letters being grateful, so it is win win wonderful. art

    2. Hi

      -"Is gratitude a feeling"-?

      Such a good question. I think gratitude is the awareness of relief from suffering (provided by someone specific), from unmet need, from loneliness or hunger or lack of recognition. . . Many forms of suffering can be 'relieved' and one can feel grateful for that.

      I am also very grateful for Art's blog. . . Sometimes I have to pinch myself to check I'm not dreaming. . .

      Paul G.

    3. Hi,
      -"That means that those doing psychotherapy will never plumb the depths necessary for healing"-.

      I totally agree. So, I stopped seeing my (conventional) therapist this evening, last session. We had a good hug and I departed. . .

      I am absolutely certain of the limits of our 'alliance'. I do feel there is a place for counselors and conventional therapists, not least of all because there is nothing better available outside USA, is there? I consider myself lucky because my therapist was not abusive or negligent. He 'listened', he didn't drape me too much and also he challenged my bullshit, so, on balance, given my real need to take stuff to a private room, it was worth the money. Also it became essential for me to test out some ideas on/with him. . .

      Ideas I got from Arts books and this blog. All completely confirmed of course (hence why I stopped).

      In my humble opinion it will continue to be very difficult to discuss Primal with most people because that is the nature of trauma, pain, repression & recovery. Conventional humanistic/ counseling /therapy (I'm not referring to the whacky/cognitive ones), based on listening and empathy is a start. I think the situation is different in UK from other countries.

      Paul G.

  3. Really fascinating Art, and yes, I too am so grateful for the work you are doing on this fórum for us. Since coming on here a few months ago I´ve felt accepted, supported, heard and inspired by you and it has made a BIG difference to my life. You´ve give me a feeling of safety which is enabling me to start feeling a lot of sadness in my heart, and I was struggling before to do this.
    Your comments about animals also validated the work át the center of my life to save animals from human caused suffering, pain and death. One vídeo I would VERY highly recommend is the following, on U Tube: Ana Breytenberg - "Animal Communication - understanding between all living beings". She has made many vídeos but this is the best I have seen. I could only watch it in pieces because it moved me so much. It shows her communicating with wild animals, easily gaining their trust where nobody else has been able to, and them sharing their hearts with her. The overwhelming message is that they feel immense sadness at what humans are doing to them and their world, a lot of emotional pain, and yet no anger. What those billons of animals in factory farms must be feeling doesn´t bear thinking about. Gary

    1. Gary: How do I connect with Breytenberg? art

    2. www.animalspirit.org
      sounds like a mix of new age and science with compassion. is it really possible? remind me of mr. johnston ex girlfrend in jarmush's "broken flowers".
      asking an insect "what is it like to see through your eyes?" and then seeing mosaique like pictures is for me hardly about having no (scientific) preconception about it. wanting to believe/be believed can help the way to what is real but it is also an obstacle.
      how to be open and not be seduced?

    3. Art
      Her email address is: info@animalspirit.org. She has a website but i can´t remember the address. She sends out a newsletter every month or so you can subscribe to. I´ve watched 4 of her U Tube vídeos and they just blew me away.
      I really hope all the primalling you´ve done over the last 50 years has been worth it Art. Was there a point when you suddenly felt that it was all worth it and you really started loving life and people? Love Gary

    4. Gary: Loving life is a tall order. I had to develop a lot. I love some people, those whom I know. I am delighted for the world that I discovered Primal . It has been and is my raison d'etre. art

    5. Art: I put it badly when I said "Loving life". What I meant was, was there a definite time when you suddenly knew for sure that primalling was the right way for yourself, and you stopped having any doubts, if you ever did? And how far into your process was it?
      I feel what feels like real love, but only degrees of it, and with some people. The degree of feeling depends on the amount of safety I feel to express it freely without fear. My homosexuality inhibits me from expressing love & compassion freely/as feels natural with most males as I have a hang up about them suspecting I might be after them. With my dogs I can be completely & utterly uninhibited. I don´t know why I feel loving or compassionate towards some people but not others. I guess it is all unconscious. But only recently I started just taking risks and expressing love and compassion freely, and not thinking of the consequences. Being on this blog and feeling I can share my pain if I get hurt is probably the most important thing enabling me to do this. A young vegan couple moved into a quinta recently very near me. We all live in the beautiful, wild Portuguese countryside. I hold & hug the guy and even kiss him, as well as the woman. No way will I try to take him away from her. Trust must develop of course and it takes time. They are nowhere near as emotionally aware as I am so it is dangerous territory, but I need the love. Gary

    6. Gary: I knew for sure when I saw the very first Primal. I kept the tape and played it over and over again because I knew there was something in there absolutely critical. And guess what? We just found the reel to reel after 50 years and we are working on it now. But I kept trying the idea with patient after patient, and each time got amazing results. It took me about thirty years before I could perfect it and made it scientific. But I never ever doubted it from day one. I knew Behaviorism and And Freudian therapy were nonsense. This opened the way. I never deviated in almost 50 years but brought it closer and closer to science. Many who tried doing the therapy deviated constantly, and the result was abreaction. I also knew that feelings were the missing ingredient of all those early therapies. About being gay. It is so bloody hard to find someone to love that where ever you find it, go for it. art

    7. Art: I´m looking forward to reading about this in more depth in your forthcoming biography, assuming it´s covered. 20 years of searching for primal therapy outside your center have proven to me what I knew right from the start - "primal therapists" not trained by you are just a waste of time and money. Even those few who once primalled no longer do, and they define abreaction or catharsis as primals. They have neither rigorous scientific method nor emotional capacity to induce primals. And worse, very few people are willing to have their therapy questioned. Hope springs eternal. Gary

  4. In interest of animal evolution, I was reading where domestic pigs can revert to their wild roots.
    Wildlife Kristine Brown of Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources states: "Any pig that gets out can revert back in a matter of months to a state where they can exist in the wild. It will get hairy, grow tusks, and get aggressive. They are so good at adapting with their scavenging nature, they can get by anywhere."
    No doubt not being cared for anymore and having to fend for themselves they must develop a sympathetic dominance?

    1. Hi Sheri,

      sounds exactly like me.

      There was a story of a pig that escaped from a West Country slaughterhouse and trotted off down the road and went 'wild' for quite a long time. . . The authorities sent out search parties, to no avail. Eventually the locals put in a petition to 'free the pig'. . . now he lives in a sanctuary and the public can come and visit him. . .

      Lessons there methinks. . .

      Paul G.

    2. Hi Paul, glad you have a place of your own and are no longer feral. Feeling secure about home is so important, huh. Bless those people who took the pig in. I think a lot of people would be vegetarian if they had to kill their own food. I use to like to fish, but I don't feel like ending an animal's life now.
      I watched a Pbs show where this family had a restaurant and their friends had a nearby farm with a small corral of pigs. They were going to have a bar-b-cue and planned on their friend shooting one of his pigs. They all gathered with trepidation to witness this happy pig without a care be sacrificed...and as the rifle shot rang out they all stood stunned and horrified for several minutes. They went through with the preparing and butchering and said to each other that as they cooked and ate that this was part of nature; but you could tell they were still disturbed. Wonder what they said when the cameras were off.

    3. Hi All,

      I think when we become 'conscious' we bear the burden of living in two worlds.

      Check out the story of "Ishi" the last indiginous Indian in California.

      The book is called: "Living In Two Worlds".

      I might have mis - gramaticised some of that but if you Google it I'm sure you'll get the right book; really worth the read. . .

      Paul G.

  5. Hi art,
    Her name is Anna Breytenbach. She lives ere in South Africa.


  6. Hi
    What do you think about Gurdjieff and Ouspensk?

    1. It has been 40 years since I looked at it. I thought it was booga booga but i don't know any more. art

    2. I know you don´t Art. Same with me. "The hundedth monkey" by Ken Keyes describes a 30 year research project in Japan on a group of Japanese monkeys. One started washing sweet potatoes in seawater before eating them and over the next 6 years this practice spread. Suddenly, it appears that a critical mass was reached because monkeys on other parts of the Island with no obvious physical contact with the original group all started doing exactly the same thing. At PRECISELY the same time, monkeys on ALL the surrounding islands and the mainland started washing their potatoes before eating them. There was no way these monkeys could have communicated by any way we know. The study´s scientists postulated that there must have been some sort of "morphogenetic structure/field" connecting them.
      A few years on an Australian/UK research team made a photograph in which there were hundreds of human faces,of all different sizes, most so miniscule that without training one could only see 6 or 7. In Austrália, hundreds of people were given a certain length of time to study the picture & asked how many faces they saw. Extremely few saw more than ten. The photo was then taken to the UK and shown on a closed circuit BBC station shown only in the UK where pointers showed ALL the other faces. A FEW MINUTES LATER, the other part of the research team in Oz repeated the original experiment, and lo & behold, most people could suddenly see most of the faces
      Now the Australian Aborigines have known about an "energy field" connecting humans for thousands of years. In all this Jungs "collective unconscious" comes to mind. NWO/truth researcher Ivan Fraser wrote (Truth campaign mag, issue 30, 2004) ""If there is enough illusion in the COLLECTIVE psyche, then people sometimes cannot even see what is in front of them, and the mind does not operate effectively, which is what cults rely on to control people.. It is also what propagandists use in marketing, but to even greater levels to promote wars, social control, etc". Mass hysteria might also be an example of something difficult to explain without metaphysics. Gary

    3. Art, what you describe seems to radically challenge orthodox Darwinian evolution theory. Something which has never made sense to me is how species could survive during tens or hundreds of thousands of years between radically different evolutionary start & end points. To explain; scientists now believe that dolphins and whales evolved from wolf like creatures. They also believe birds evolved from small land bound dinosaurs. If Darwins theory is true, these would have been at a terrible disadvantage in terms of survival for countless thousands of years. Why would nature put them through this? Why not just let them die out instead rather than force on them countless millenia of suffering? What your above article and the Hundredth Monkey study show is that radical and extremely rapid change can and do occur. This makes me wonder if the huge brain development humans underwent as a result of trauma could have happened extremely quickly AND in MANY hominoid primates simultaneously. If not, the brain would have been useless for thousands of years for integrating trauma until it had reached a minimal size. Gary

    4. Gary: There is a lot to know in this world without resorting to metaphysics. Let's move science ahead. art

    5. A thoughtful answer. Evolution has many pathways but it was established years ago by many many scientists as the most important discovery in science in history. I would hope the shrinks would also apply it to psychotherapy. art

    6. Hi Art,

      -"most important discovery in science in history. I would hope the shrinks would also apply it to psychotherapy".

      Yeah, and then the 'evolved' version of 'psychotherapy' should be applied to them too. . . . . . . . . . After all, let's not merely rely on using others as our guinea pigs to test our theories out on eh?



    7. Hi,

      sometimes, when we 'put out' a distress call for support we attract people who can really help.

      sometimes each distress call produces a 'beacon' to 'fix' on. . .

      Paul G.

    8. Hi,

      also Gurdjief made a Big point of 'recurrence' and the 'absence of free will'.

      I find Arts blog gives me 'Hope'. . .

      Paul G.

  7. Art
    Then what non metaphysical explanations are you aware of which might explain The Hundredth Monkey, the Australian/UK experiment, the rapid transformations you describe, the need I explained for rapid evolutionary change to ensure survival, and the "missing link"?
    Sent with genuine fascination, not defensiveness/aggression. Gary

    1. Gary: There are so many explanations out there. All I can do is mention where science leads me. And I never take your writing in the wrong way. art


Review of "Beyond Belief"

This thought-provoking and important book shows how people are drawn toward dangerous beliefs.
“Belief can manifest itself in world-changing ways—and did, in some of history’s ugliest moments, from the rise of Adolf Hitler to the Jonestown mass suicide in 1979. Arthur Janov, a renowned psychologist who penned The Primal Scream, fearlessly tackles the subject of why and how strong believers willingly embrace even the most deranged leaders.
Beyond Belief begins with a lucid explanation of belief systems that, writes Janov, “are maps, something to help us navigate through life more effectively.” While belief systems are not presented as inherently bad, the author concentrates not just on why people adopt belief systems, but why “alienated individuals” in particular seek out “belief systems on the fringes.” The result is a book that is both illuminating and sobering. It explores, for example, how a strongly-held belief can lead radical Islamist jihadists to murder others in suicide acts. Janov writes, “I believe if people had more love in this life, they would not be so anxious to end it in favor of some imaginary existence.”
One of the most compelling aspects of Beyond Belief is the author’s liberal use of case studies, most of which are related in the first person by individuals whose lives were dramatically affected by their involvement in cults. These stories offer an exceptional perspective on the manner in which belief systems can take hold and shape one’s experiences. Joan’s tale, for instance, both engaging and disturbing, describes what it was like to join the Hare Krishnas. Even though she left the sect, observing that participants “are stunted in spiritual awareness,” Joan considers returning someday because “there’s a certain protection there.”
Janov’s great insight into cultish leaders is particularly interesting; he believes such people have had childhoods in which they were “rejected and unloved,” because “only unloved people want to become the wise man or woman (although it is usually male) imparting words of wisdom to others.” This is just one reason why Beyond Belief is such a thought-provoking, important book.”
Barry Silverstein, Freelance Writer

Quotes for "Life Before Birth"

“Life Before Birth is a thrilling journey of discovery, a real joy to read. Janov writes like no one else on the human mind—engaging, brilliant, passionate, and honest.
He is the best writer today on what makes us human—he shows us how the mind works, how it goes wrong, and how to put it right . . . He presents a brand-new approach to dealing with depression, emotional pain, anxiety, and addiction.”
Paul Thompson, PhD, Professor of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine

Art Janov, one of the pioneers of fetal and early infant experiences and future mental health issues, offers a robust vision of how the earliest traumas of life can percolate through the brains, minds and lives of individuals. He focuses on both the shifting tides of brain emotional systems and the life-long consequences that can result, as well as the novel interventions, and clinical understanding, that need to be implemented in order to bring about the brain-mind changes that can restore affective equanimity. The transitions from feelings of persistent affective turmoil to psychological wholeness, requires both an understanding of the brain changes and a therapist that can work with the affective mind at primary-process levels. Life Before Birth, is a manifesto that provides a robust argument for increasing attention to the neuro-mental lives of fetuses and infants, and the widespread ramifications on mental health if we do not. Without an accurate developmental history of troubled minds, coordinated with a recognition of the primal emotional powers of the lowest ancestral regions of the human brain, therapists will be lost in their attempt to restore psychological balance.
Jaak Panksepp, Ph.D.
Bailey Endowed Chair of Animal Well Being Science
Washington State University

Dr. Janov’s essential insight—that our earliest experiences strongly influence later well being—is no longer in doubt. Thanks to advances in neuroscience, immunology, and epigenetics, we can now see some of the mechanisms of action at the heart of these developmental processes. His long-held belief that the brain, human development, and psychological well being need to studied in the context of evolution—from the brainstem up—now lies at the heart of the integration of neuroscience and psychotherapy.
Grounded in these two principles, Dr. Janov continues to explore the lifelong impact of prenatal, birth, and early experiences on our brains and minds. Simultaneously “old school” and revolutionary, he synthesizes traditional psychodynamic theories with cutting-edge science while consistently highlighting the limitations of a strict, “top-down” talking cure. Whether or not you agree with his philosophical assumptions, therapeutic practices, or theoretical conclusions, I promise you an interesting and thought-provoking journey.
Lou Cozolino, PsyD, Professor of Psychology, Pepperdine University

In Life Before Birth Dr. Arthur Janov illuminates the sources of much that happens during life after birth. Lucidly, the pioneer of primal therapy provides the scientific rationale for treatments that take us through our original, non-verbal memories—to essential depths of experience that the superficial cognitive-behavioral modalities currently in fashion cannot possibly touch, let alone transform.
Gabor Maté MD, author of In The Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters With Addiction

An expansive analysis! This book attempts to explain the impact of critical developmental windows in the past, implores us to improve the lives of pregnant women in the present, and has implications for understanding our children, ourselves, and our collective future. I’m not sure whether primal therapy works or not, but it certainly deserves systematic testing in well-designed, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trials.
K.J.S. Anand, MBBS, D. Phil, FAACP, FCCM, FRCPCH, Professor of Pediatrics, Anesthesiology, Anatomy & Neurobiology, Senior Scholar, Center for Excellence in Faith and Health, Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare System

A baby's brain grows more while in the womb than at any time in a child's life. Life Before Birth: The Hidden Script That Rules Our Lives is a valuable guide to creating healthier babies and offers insight into healing our early primal wounds. Dr. Janov integrates the most recent scientific research about prenatal development with the psychobiological reality that these early experiences do cast a long shadow over our entire lifespan. With a wealth of experience and a history of successful psychotherapeutic treatment, Dr. Janov is well positioned to speak with clarity and precision on a topic that remains critically important.
Paula Thomson, PsyD, Associate Professor, California State University, Northridge & Professor Emeritus, York University

"I am enthralled.
Dr. Janov has crafted a compelling and prophetic opus that could rightly dictate
PhD thesis topics for decades to come. Devoid of any "New Age" pseudoscience,
this work never strays from scientific orthodoxy and yet is perfectly accessible and
downright fascinating to any lay person interested in the mysteries of the human psyche."
Dr. Bernard Park, MD, MPH

His new book “Life Before Birth: The Hidden Script that Rules Our Lives” shows that primal therapy, the lower-brain therapeutic method popularized in the 1970’s international bestseller “Primal Scream” and his early work with John Lennon, may help alleviate depression and anxiety disorders, normalize blood pressure and serotonin levels, and improve the functioning of the immune system.
One of the book’s most intriguing theories is that fetal imprinting, an evolutionary strategy to prepare children to cope with life, establishes a permanent set-point in a child's physiology. Baby's born to mothers highly anxious during pregnancy, whether from war, natural disasters, failed marriages, or other stressful life conditions, may thus be prone to mental illness and brain dysfunction later in life. Early traumatic events such as low oxygen at birth, painkillers and antidepressants administered to the mother during pregnancy, poor maternal nutrition, and a lack of parental affection in the first years of life may compound the effect.
In making the case for a brand-new, unified field theory of psychotherapy, Dr. Janov weaves together the evolutionary theories of Jean Baptiste Larmarck, the fetal development studies of Vivette Glover and K.J.S. Anand, and fascinating new research by the psychiatrist Elissa Epel suggesting that telomeres—a region of repetitive DNA critical in predicting life expectancy—may be significantly altered during pregnancy.
After explaining how hormonal and neurologic processes in the womb provide a blueprint for later mental illness and disease, Dr. Janov charts a revolutionary new course for psychotherapy. He provides a sharp critique of cognitive behavioral therapy, psychoanalysis, and other popular “talk therapy” models for treating addiction and mental illness, which he argues do not reach the limbic system and brainstem, where the effects of early trauma are registered in the nervous system.
“Life Before Birth: The Hidden Script that Rules Our Lives” is scheduled to be published by NTI Upstream in October 2011, and has tremendous implications for the future of modern psychology, pediatrics, pregnancy, and women’s health.